First of all, due to the strong integrity, high rigidity and good airtight performance of the container box structure, in addition to being able to build itself, it also has the ability to resist unconventional geological and climatic conditions, and can adapt to various sites in different environments. Secondly, the size of the modular container home is small and has the characteristics of modularization. Not only can the scale of the container building be flexibly adjusted according to the site conditions, but also the requirements for the surrounding supporting facilities are not high. Furthermore, the container box structure is much lighter than the concrete building, and the requirements for the bearing capacity of the site are not high, which improves the utilization rate of the land. Therefore, it is generally more economical and reasonable to use the foundation, but when the bearing capacity of the foundation soil cannot meet the structural requirements, the foundation needs to be treated by compacting and leveling the foundation soil, and there is no surface water retention.
The function of the foundation is nothing more than to transmit the upper container load, adjust the horizontal angle of the ground, fix the container, and isolate the water. A series of characteristics of the container house determine that its requirements for foundation treatment are lower than that of general buildings. It is not difficult to find from real cases that the basic structures of modular container home include four types: steel anchorage, concrete block footing, ground beam and steel cable fixation. Since the bottom plate and beams of the container are cold-formed thin-walled steel members, they are not suitable to be placed on the ground. Therefore, the current commonly used foundation form is the extension foundation, which is generally supported by box bottom foundation, concrete block footings or ground beams. On the one hand, it can be good, on the other hand, when the equipment pipeline is designed at the bottom of the box, it is convenient for workers to install and repair. In addition, the existing consolidation site can be used as the foundation of the container building with experience.
The container itself is a fully enclosed space unit, and its roof has the space stress characteristics of the box, but the roof itself is relatively weak in rigidity and strength, so it is not suitable to be used directly as a building roof, but a load-bearing roof should be provided. The roof not only solves the problem of rainwater in buildings, but also plays an important role in problems such as ventilation, sound insulation and so on. According to the different requirements of customized container buildings, different roof structures and additional methods can be adopted. At present, the most commonly used light profiled steel plates are wiping roofs, which have good properties, beautiful colors and convenient construction; in addition, there are several other roofing forms, such as tile and pitch roofs, light metal tiled roofs and coiled flat roofs. Different roofs have different requirements for drainage slope, drainage ditch method, layer method, etc.; and the methods of adding roofing are also different, mainly including direct covering, short columns and beams, brackets and independent supports.
External walls and external doors and windows are the key to container construction, lighting and ventilation, and have an important impact on the thermal performance of buildings. The wall panels of modern prefabricated container houses should be used as wall material supports and can be used as insulation layers; when the outer side wall panels are deformed, keels should be used to level or repair and level them according to the actual situation. In heating areas, lightweight thermal insulation materials should be used for external thermal insulation; in areas where thermal insulation is the main requirement, a curtain wall with a flowable air layer can be used. The external doors and windows of the container prefab are generally pre-installed, so it should be considered to set deformation joints with the box opening components, and the deformation should meet the requirements of hoisting and transportation; the door and window frames should be selected with external flooding and dripping structures. The frame material and the outer door shall be provided with a shock-absorbing structure.
The external additional components for the building of the custom container, such as balconies, external corridors, canopies, sunshades, outdoor stairs, equipment supports, etc., should meet the requirements of structural design and lightning protection, heat insulation, shock isolation and appearance. External components are generally fixed on the box by bolting or welding, which is easy to generate thermal bridges and sound bridges. Therefore, when external insulation is used, such components should be reduced or isolation measures should be taken, and the connection design should also avoid the connection of metal components with large cross-sections; in the lightning protection design, the metal box can be used as a flasher and a downconductor. When the components cannot be connected, various external metal additional components should be connected with the main box by metal wires; when the container door is used to open the bottom plate When setting up a balcony, the box door and the column should be connected, and the door hinge should not be used to bear the load. When conditions permit, external members can be made of wood or steel and wood.